Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)


The GPR technique is based on the transmission of a pulsed radar wave into the soil and resolving the reflected signal in the time domain. Signal reflection occurs at regions of varying permittivity, and therefore enables the identification and depth measurement of regions of varying dielectric properties. GPR can also be used for measurement of soil water content based on the propagation velocity determined from reflected signal targets.


Resolving depth of soil physical structures or objects.

Soil moisture measurement [2].


Development Status



The fundamental principles of GPR [1].


1. Daniels DJ, Gunton DJ, Scott HF. 1988. Introduction to subsurface radar. IEEE Proceedings—F Radar and Signal Processing 135: 278–320.

2. Huisman JA, Hubbard SS, Redman JD, Annan AP. 2003. Measuring soil water content with ground penetrating radar: a review. Vadose ZoneJournal 2: 476–491.